Watts et al., “Patients’ Accounts of Increased ‘Connectedness’ and ‘Acceptance’ After Psilocybin for Treatment-Resistant Depression” (2017)

Griffiths et al, “Psilocybin produces substantial and sustained decreases in depression and anxiety in patients with life-threatening cancer” (2016)

Carhart-Harris, et al., “Trial of Psilocybin versus Escitalopram for Depression.”, N Engl J Med (2021)

Schindler et al., “Exploratory Controlled Study of the Migraine-Suppressing Effects of Psilocybin” (2020)

Hasler et al., “Acute psychological and physiological effects of psilocybin in healthy humans: a double-blind, placebo-controlled dose effect study” (2004)

Sewell et al., “Response of cluster headache to psilocybin and LSD” (2006)

Moreno et al., “Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of psilocybin in 9 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder” (2006)


Leal et al., “Intravenous arketamine for treatment-resistant depression: open-label pilot study” (2020)

Chang et al., “Comparison of antidepressant and side effects in mice after intranasal administration of (R,S)-ketamine, (R)-ketamine, and (S)-ketamine”, Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior (2019)

Bonaventura et al., “Pharmacological and behavioral divergence of ketamine enantiomers:implications for abuse liability” (2021)

Jelen et al., “Ketamine: A tale of two enantiomers” (2020)

Witkin et al., “R-(-)-ketamine modifies behavioral effects of morphine predicting efficacy as a novel therapy for opioid use disorder” (2020)

Yang et al., “R-ketamine: a rapid-onset and sustained antidepressant without psychotomimetic side effects” (2015)

Zanos et al., “NDMAR inhibition-independent antidepressant actions of ketamine metabolites” (2016)

Wei et al., “A historical review of antidepressant effects of ketamine and its enantiomers” (2020)

Wei et al., “Molecular mechanisms underlying the antidepressant actions of arketamine: beyond the NMDA receptor” (2021)

Ibogaine & Noribogaine

Schenberg et al., “Treating drug dependence with the aid of ibogaine: A qualitative study” (2017)

Mash et al., “Ibogaine Detoxification Transitions Opioid and Cocaine Abusers Between Dependence and Abstinence: Clinical Observations and Treatment Outcomes” (2018)

Brown & Alper, “Treatment of opioid use disorder with ibogaine: detoxification and drug use outcomes” (2017)

Glue et al., “Ascending Single-Dose, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Safety Study of Noribogaine in Opioid-Dependent Patients” (2016)

Cappendijk & Dzoljic, “Inhibitory effects of ibogaine on cocaine self-administration in rats” (1993)

Dzoljic et al., “Effect of ibogaine on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome in chronic morphine-dependent rats” (1988)

Rezvani et al., “Attenuation of alcohol intake by Ibogaine in three strains of alcohol-preferring rats” (1995)

Brown & Alper, “Treatment of opioid use disorder with ibogaine: detoxification and drug use outcomes” (2016)

Maillet et al., “Noribogaine is a G-protein biased κ-opioid receptor agonist” (2015)


Nguyen et al., “Efficacy of etifoxine compared to lorazepam monotherapy in the treatment of patients with adjustment disorders with anxiety: a double‐blind controlled study in general practice” (2006)

Vicente et al., “Etifoxine is non-inferior than clonazepam for reduction of anxiety symptoms in the treatment of anxiety disorders: a randomized, double blind, non-inferiority trial” (2020)

Nuss et al., “An update on the anxiolytic and neuroprotective properties of etifoxine: from brain GABA modulation to a whole-body mode of action” (2019)

Deplanque et al., “Etifoxine impairs neither alertness nor cognitive functions of the elderly: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study” (2018)

Cottin et al., “Safety profile of etifoxine: A French pharmacovigilance survey” (2016)

Stein, “Etifoxine versus alprazolam for the treatment of adjustment disorder with anxiety: a randomized controlled trial” (2015)


Hoffer et al., “Amelioration of acute sequelae of blast induced mild traumatic brain injury by N-acetyl cysteine: a double-blind, placebo controlled study” (2013)

Hoffer et al., “Protective Effect of N-Acetylcysteine Amide on Blast-Induced Increase in Intracranial Pressure in Rats” (2013)

Eakin et al., “Efficacy of N-Acetyl Cysteine in Traumatic Brain Injury” (2014)

Tardiolo et al., “Overview on the Effects of N-Acetylcysteine in Neurodegenerative Diseases” (2018)

Deepmala et al., “Clinical trials of N-acetylcysteine in psychiatry and neurology: A systematic review” (2015)

Xlong et al., “N-acetylcysteine alleviated paraquat-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and autophagy in primary murine neural progenitor cells” (2019)


Szabo et al., “The Endogenous Hallucinogen and Trace Amine N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) Displays Potent Protective Effects against Hypoxia via Sigma-1 Receptor Activation in Human Primary iPSC-Derived Cortical Neurons and Microglia-Like Immune Cells” (2016)

Katchborian-Neto et al., “Neuroprotective potential of Ayahuasca and untargeted metabolomics analyses: applicability to Parkinson’s disease” (2020)

Argento et al., “Exploring ayahuasca‐assisted therapy for addiction: A qualitative analysis of preliminary findings among an Indigenous community in Canada” (2019)

Palhano-Fontes et al., “Rapid antidepressant effects of the psychedelic ayahuasca in treatment-resistant depression”, PsychoMed (2019)

Timmermann et al., “Neural correlates of the DMT experience assessed with multivariate EEG” (2019)

Pasquini et al., “Subacute effects of the psychedelic ayahuasca on the salience and default mode networks” (2020)

Pallavicini et al., “Neural and subjective effects of inhaled DMT in natural settings” (2020)


MAPS, “MAPS – MDMA Investigator’s Brochure (10th Edition)” (2018)

Mithoefer et al., “MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for treatment of PTSD: study design and rationale for phase 3 trials based on pooled analysis of six phase 2 randomized controlled trials” (2019)

Rudnick & Wall, “The molecular mechanism of “ecstasy” [3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA)]: serotonin transporters are targets for MDMA-induced serotonin release” (1992)

Carhart-Harris et al., “The Effects of Acutely Administered 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine on Spontaneous Brain Function in Healthy Volunteers Measured with Arterial Spin Labeling and Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent Resting State Functional Connectivity” (2015)

Mitchell et al., “MDMA-assisted therapy for severe PTSD: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study” (2021)

Salvinorin A

Brito-da-Costa et al., “Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Salvinorin A and Salvia divinorum: Clinical and Forensic Aspects” (2021)

Doss et al., “The Acute Effects of the Atypical Dissociative Hallucinogen Salvinorin A on Functional Connectivity in the Human Brain” (2020)


Vicknasingam et al., “Kratom and Pain Tolerance: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Study” (2020)

Kruegel et al., “7-Hydroxymitragynine Is an Active Metabolite of Mitragynine and a Key Mediator of Its Analgesic Effects” (2019)

Ya et al., “Pharmacokinetics of mitragynine, a major analgesic alkaloid in kratom (Mitragyna speciosa): A systematic review” (2019)

Kruegel et al., “Synthetic and Receptor Signaling Explorations of the Mitragyna Alkaloids: Mitragynine as an Atypical Molecular Framework for Opioid Receptor Modulators” (2016)

Watanabe et al., “Inhibitory effect of mitragynine, an alkaloid with analgesic effect from Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa, on electrically stimulated contraction of isolated guinea-pig ileum through the opioid receptor” (1997)

Meireles et al., “Mitragyna speciosa: Clinical, Toxicological Aspects and Analysis in Biological and Non-Biological Samples” (2019)

Digital Therapeutics (DTx)

Campbell et al., “Internet-delivered treatment for substance abuse: a multisite randomized controlled trial” (2014)

Brown et al., “Effectiveness of Web-Delivered Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in Relation to Mental Health and Well-Being: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis” (2016)

Lee et al., “A pilot randomized controlled trial using EEG-based brain-computer interface training for a Chinese-speaking group of healthy elderly” (2015)

Lee et al., “A brain-computer interface based cognitive training system for healthy elderly: a randomized control pilot study for usability and preliminary efficacy” (2013)

Hirschtritt & Insel, “Digital Technologies in Psychiatry: Present and Future” (2018)

Cavazos-Rehg et al., “Delivering information about medication assisted treatment to individuals who misuse opioids through a mobile app: a pilot study” (2020)

reSET-O Prescription Digital Therapeutic: Clinician Information – Brief Summary Instructions (2019)


Abbott, “COVID’s mental-health toll: how scientists are tracking a surge in depression”, Nature (2021)

Tew et al., “Impact of prior treatment exposure on response to antidepressant treatment in late life” Am J Geriatr Psychiatry (2006)

Spriggs et al., “Positive effects of psychedelics on depression and wellbeing scores in individuals reporting an eating disorder” (2020)

Pandarakalam, “Challenges of Treatment-resistant Depression” (2018)

Sussman et al., “Economic Burden of Treatment-Resistant Depression on the U.S. Health Care System” (2019)

Gaynes et al., “Defining treatment‐resistant depression” (2019)


DeVane et al., “Anxiety Disorders in the 21st Century: Status, Challenges, Opportunities, and Comorbidity With Depression”, AJMC (2005)

DeMartini et al., “Generalized Anxiety Disorder” (2019)

Cognitive Impairment Associated with Schizophrenia

Charlson et al., “Global Epidemiology and Burden of Schizophrenia: Findings From the Global Burden of Disease Study” (2016)

Reichenberg et al., “Neuropsychological Function and Dysfunction in Schizophrenia and Psychotic Affective Disorders” (2009)

Laursen, Nordentoft & Mortensen, “Excess early mortality in schizophrenia” (2014)

Cloutier et al., “The Economic Burden of Schizophrenia in the United States in 2013” (2016)

Substance Use Disorder

Wilson et al., “Drug and opioid-involved overdose deaths – United States, 2017-2018” (2020)

Murphy, “The cost of opioid use disorder and the value of aversion” (2020)

Sinha, “New Findings on Biological Factors Predicting Addiction Relapse Vulnerability” (2011)

Traumatic Brain Injury

Georges et al, “Traumatic Brain Injury”, NCBI (2020)

Thurman et al., “Report to Congress: Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States”, CDC (1999)

Hoffer et al., “Repositioning drugs for traumatic brain injury”, Journal of Biomedical Science (2017)

McInnes et al., “Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) and chronic cognitive impairment: A scoping review” (2017)


Patel et al., “The Lancet Commission on global mental health and sustainable development”, The Lancet (2018)

Salzer, “National Estimates of Recovery-Remission From Serious Mental Illness”, Psychiatry Online (2018)

Flanagan & Nichols, “Psychedelics as anti-inflammatory agents” (2018)

Vann Jones & O’Kelly, “Psychedelics as a Treatment for Alzheimer’s Disease Dementia” (2020)

Thompson et al., “Psychedelics as a novel approach to treating autoimmune conditions” (2020)

Szabo A., “Psychedelics and immunomodulation: novel approaches and therapeutic opportunities” (2015)

Lea et al., “Perceived outcomes of psychedelic microdosing as self-managed therapies for mental and substance use disorders” (2020)

Inserra et al., “Psychedelics in Psychiatry: Neuroplastic, Immunomodulatory, and Neurotransmitter Mechanisms”, Pharmacol Rev (2021)

Vollenweider & Preller, “Psychedelic drugs: neurobiology and potential for treatment of psychiatric disorders” (2020)




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