How Socioeconomic Inequality Raises Risk for Depression

Depression is a pervasive and debilitating mental health disorder that affects more than 300 million people, making it the leading cause of disability worldwide. This week, we take a look at how social and economic inequality contributes to depression. See last week’s post here.


Large income gaps in a community can make people feel impoverished, even when they may not be poor by economic standards. When individuals attempt and fail to achieve socio-economic success, they often blame themselves, leading to feelings of shame, hopelessness, and demotivation — all risk factors for depression. Income inequality may also decrease social cohesion, leading to poor protection of those most vulnerable, consequently increasing their social exclusion and isolation.

As part of a 2018 meta-analysis, researchers analyzed 26 studies on societal income levels and respective prevalences of depression. Results found that:

On a national level, policies that limited access to healthcare, healthy food, education, and public transport, as well as those that led to increased pollution levels, were the most significant contributors to poor physical health and increased risk of depression.

On a local level, researchers had two theories as to the correlations between inequality and respective rates of depression. The first was that people with fewer resources felt socially defeated and/or status anxiety from living in such close proximity to those better off. The second was that inequality was eroding social capital by reducing social interaction, trust, and cooperation, and that this was promoting social isolation and loneliness. 

On an individual level, researchers felt that psychological stress related to the other two levels were the biggest contributors to the increases seen in a person’s risk of depression.

Other research has found that women in unequal societies have a significantly higher risk for depression than their male counterparts. In one study that analyzed survey data from 34,653 U.S. adults, results showed that women living in states with the broadest income ranges, like New York and the District of Columbia, were nearly twice as likely to experience depression compared to those in more equal states such as Utah and Alaska.


Join us as we continue to examine the top 8 factors contributing to the depression epidemic (and don’t forget to sign up for our weekly newsletter to stay up to date with all the latest news in biotech, mental health innovation, and much more).



Christian Angermayer

Founder

Strategy and investor relations

Lars Wilde

Co-Founder

Advising on drug discovery and compound sourcing

The Eight Most Significant Factors Contributing to Today’s Depression Epidemic (sources)

  1. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/depression
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28027366
  3. https://www.who.int/mental_health/in_the_workplace
  4. https://ada.com/signs-of-depression
  5. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/suicide.shtml
  6. https://adaa.org/about-adaa/press-room/facts-statistics
  7. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/major-depression.shtml
  8. https://www.bcbs.com/the-health-of-america/reports/major-depression-the-impact-overall-health
  9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5579396
  10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26651008
  11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15271581
  12. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24269030
  13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3889685
  14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4006295
  15. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11691695
  16. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10431682
  17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19434623
  18. https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/138/6/e20161878
  19. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2738337
  20. https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/data/statedeaths.html
  21. http://www.annfammed.org/content/14/1/54
  22. https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/prescription-opioids
  23. https://www.psychiatrictimes.com/special-reports/opioid-use-elderly
  24. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2682878
  25. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2684607
  26. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2841310
  27. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2008-07755-000
  28. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4021390
  29. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4225959
  30. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5775138
  31. https://jech.bmj.com/content/68/2/110.abstract
  32. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/chronic-illness-mental-health/index.shtml
  33. https://adaa.org/serious-chronic-or-terminal-illnesses
  34. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30844397
  35. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4308579/
  36. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5017546/
  37. http://www.pointinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/standard_v_9.2_hpa_axis.pdf
  38. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3860380/
  39. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563216302552?via%3Dihub
  40. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5633215/

Florian Brand

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Executing drug development and operations

Simon Seibold

Associate

Investments and business development

Philipp Schreiber

Associate

Drug discovery and compound sourcing

ATAI is supporting the revival of treatments with prior evidence in humans, such as psilocybin and ketamine, in fighting mental health disorders

Depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, bipolar disorder and other psychiatric conditions are increasingly becoming a burden for patients, families and societies.

We believe that

ATAI is leveraging the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) and big data analytics to optimize and accelerate the drug development process

Technological innovation will enable us to consolidate and make sense of vast amounts of previously inaccessible data.

We believe that

Matthias Luz, MD

Chief Medical Officer

Developing clinical strategy for lead compounds

Srinivas Rao, MD, PhD

Chief Scientific Officer

Advance the science into clinical evaluation

Danny Talati

Lead, Business Development

Compound sourcing and evaluating

Allan Malievsky

Associate

Communications and Business Development

Greg Bates

Lead, Regulatory Affairs

Successful product approval

Aaron Weaver

Senior Legal Counsel

Ana Zarzosa

Team and Research Assistant

Supporting smooth communication and a high-performance team environment

Ali Mahomed

Global Venture Development

Operationally growing portfolio companies

SourcesThe Eight Most Significant Factors Contributing to Today’s Depression Epidemic (full series)

  1. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/depression
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28027366
  3. https://www.who.int/mental_health/in_the_workplace
  4. https://ada.com/signs-of-depression
  5. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/suicide.shtml
  6. https://adaa.org/about-adaa/press-room/facts-statistics
  7. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/major-depression.shtml
  8. https://www.bcbs.com/the-health-of-america/reports/major-depression-the-impact-overall-health
  9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5579396
  10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26651008
  11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15271581
  12. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24269030
  13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3889685
  14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4006295
  15. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11691695
  16. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10431682
  17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19434623
  18. https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/138/6/e20161878
  19. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2738337
  20. https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/data/statedeaths.html
  21. http://www.annfammed.org/content/14/1/54
  22. https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/prescription-opioids
  23. https://www.psychiatrictimes.com/special-reports/opioid-use-elderly
  24. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2682878
  25. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2684607
  26. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2841310
  27. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2008-07755-000
  28. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4021390
  29. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4225959
  30. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5775138
  31. https://jech.bmj.com/content/68/2/110.abstract
  32. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/chronic-illness-mental-health/index.shtml
  33. https://adaa.org/serious-chronic-or-terminal-illnesses
  34. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30844397
  35. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4308579/
  36. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5017546/
  37. http://www.pointinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/standard_v_9.2_hpa_axis.pdf
  38. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3860380/
  39. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563216302552?via%3Dihub
  40. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5633215/

Ali Mahomed

Global Venture Development Junior Associate

Operationally growing portfolio companies